Paul K. Driessen, JD, Senior Fellow with the Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow, in a chapter titled "Solar and Wind Power Are Unproductive and Environmentally Harmful," in the book At Issue: What Energy Sources Should be Pursued?, wrote: "Producing 50 megawatts of electricity using a gas-fired generating plant requires between 2 and 5 acres of land. Getting the same amount from photovoltaics means covering some 1,000 acres with solar panels (assuming a very optimistic 10 watts per square meter (W/m2) or 5 percent peak efficiency), plus access for trucks to clean the panels. Using the sun to meet California's energy needs would require paving over tens of thousands of acres of desert habitat, sacrificing what the Wilderness Society calls 'some of the most beautiful landscapes in America,' and with it their resident plant and animal life." - Paul K. Driessen, JD The California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in their Nov. report "Potential Health and Environmental Impacts Associated with the Manufacture and Use of Photovoltaic Cells," available on the EPRI website, wrote the following: "The production of photovoltaic devices can involve the use of some toxic and explosive gases, corrosive liquids, and suspected carcinogenic compounds. The magnitude of potential effects will vary based on the materialsâ€™ toxicological properties, and the intensity, frequency, and duration of human exposure... Disposal of large quantities of modules in a single landfill could lead to increased potential risks to humans and biota [animal and plant life of an area or time period]. The leaching of chemicals from these landfilled modules has the potential to contaminate local ground and surface water... Biota inhabiting the areas in the vicinity of an accidental release at a manufacturing facility could be exposed to elevated concentrations of chemicals through direct ingestion of compounds, ingestion of contaminated water, contact with contaminated soils, or inhalation of contaminated air. Exposure to chemicals can lead to a variety of impacts on organisms, including impaired reproduction, decreased pulmonary activity, increased mortality, and reduced growth. The severity of any effects will vary depending upon the amount and type of chemical being released..." - California Energy Commission Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Howard C. Hayden, PhD, Emeritus Professor of Physics at the University of Connecticut, in his book The Solar Fraud: Why Solar Energy Won't Run the World, wrote: "The Solar Two site [a solar installation in Barstow, CA] occupies 52.6 hectares (130 acres) and produces 10 MWe (megawatt electrical) peak. Its capacity factor is about 16%. For a Solar-Two installation to produce as much energy as a typical 1000-MWe power plant [approximately 0.6 square miles] does in a year, it would have to cover about 33,000 hectares (127 square miles). That is environmental impact!"